A Matter of Choice

“Healthy nutrition is about making good choices”


Nutritional Awareness and You

In today’s world of fast food, fast-paced lifestyles, and diet and fitness fads, it seems as though someone constantly has something new and trendy to add to an already overwhelming store of so-called knowledge on the subject of what to eat, when to eat, how much to eat, and even how to eat it! As college students, you are faced with a multitude of choices that you may not have faced in the past. One choice which has a profound effect on the way you feel and look every day involves your eating habits and what you choose to eat. Your weight, energy level, and mental attitude are all affected by the food and drink that make up your diet.

Until recently, the subject of nutrition had the reputation of being “boring.” We all remember those infamous lessons in Health class in junior high and high school. Because of the Wellness Movement, nutrition has emerged with a fresh image. Every day, more information is made available to those who want to look and feel good while functioning at their “peak” level of performance. Our purpose, as your college food service provider, is to fulfill our commitment to provide you with the food variety necessary to achieve a balanced, healthy diet. Through this booklet and other means of nutritional awareness, we will give you some sound, basic information that will help you make informed choices in the cafeteria and achieve, for yourself, healthier eating habits. We may, at the same time, be able to make some sense out of the constant flow of information and gimmicks that are being merchandised and marketed to us every day.

In the following pages, we will cover MyPlate and show you how to achieve a balanced diet. We will also cover some basic definitions of terms that we hear all the time – i.e., proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals, cholesterol, fiber, etc. Hopefully, we can also dispel some common misconceptions about proper nutrition and weed out some of the bad habits you may have acquired. Further, we will give some attention to diet in relation to caloric intake. Included will be some guidelines for menus of varied total caloric intake.

Our focus throughout the information presented will be to help you realize how your food service, and the program we provide, can satisfy your daily nutritional needs. The important thing to remember is that you are in control – you have the ability and responsibility to improve the quality of your life though informed choices – and we want to help! You must ACT.

The ACT Principle

A – Accept responsibility for everything you are.

C – Choose to be independent

T – Take Action

Pioneer Nutrition Program

As part of your overall nutritional awareness program, we provide you with basic information that may assist you in establishing choices to make on a daily basis for a healthy diet. In conjunction with this booklet, we will also feature brochures, monthly newsletters, and table tents as a means to keep your interest and awareness alive by providing information on important nutritional issues.

You will find that our information provided will not give comprehensive breakdowns of nutrient or caloric content of foods served. Our feeling is that too much information will be overwhelming. If you want more information on a particular topic or area of interest, please check out the health and nutrition resources available on our website at www.pcconline.com.

Why We Eat and What We Eat

Introduction to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans

Before we establish what good eating is, it might be useful for us to take a look at the reasons we eat and how we’re going about it. The first and most important reason for eating is the fact that you need the energy and nutrients that food provides. The second reason for eating is more of a social thing – a family thing, if you will. We use the tradition of mealtime to visit with friends and family. This certainly is a valid reason for sharing a meal, but grazing or eating out of boredom can be dangerous. Beyond eating for your basic nutritional needs, we often eat too many nutrient- deficient “junk” foods. Chances are, you have chosen to eat foods high in calories, and most likely, these items haven’t provided you with the nutritional requirements of a balanced diet.

What force drives you toward food? There are a myriad of reasons we eat, the least of which is hunger. True hunger (a growling stomach) should be our signal to eat. Most of us never experience this feeling because we have given in to other food “cues.” A food cue is anything that causes us to think eating is the activity we should engage in when we’re not truly hungry. Many of these cues are emotional – such as loneliness, boredom, stress, or depression (exam week!). Others are social – peer pressure, eating with friends and family, or out of habit. Probably the greatest reason, though, is the thought, sight, and smell of food. Eating is one of life’s greatest pleasures! Because we live in affluence, and convenience foods are available to satisfy our cravings, we are very vulnerable to overeating. The only way to change our eating behavior is to acknowledge what our individual “food cues” are and to control them.

In January 2011, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Service, along with the U.S. Department of Agriculture, announced the release of the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the federal government’s evidence-based nutritional guidance to promote health, reduce the risk of chronic diseases, and reduce the prevalence of overweight and obesity through improved nutrition and physical activity.

Because more than one-third of children and more than two-thirds of adults in the United States are overweight or obese, the 7th edition of Dietary Guidelines for Americans places stronger emphasis on reducing calorie consumption and increasing physical activity.

The 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans focus on balancing calories with physical activity, and encourage Americans to consume more healthy foods like vegetables, fruits, whole grains, fat-free and low- fat dairy products, and seafood, and to consume less sodium, saturated and trans fats, added sugars, and refined grains.

You may be eating plenty of food, but not the right foods to give your body the nutrients you need to be healthy. You may not be getting enough physical activity to stay fit and burn those extra calories. Eating right and being physically active are not just a “diet” or a “program”- they are keys to a healthy lifestyle. With healthful habits, you may reduce your risk of many chronic diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, osteoporosis, and certain cancers, and increase your chances for a longer life.

Make smart choices from every food group

The best way to give your body the balanced nutrition it needs is by eating a variety of nutrient-packed foods every day. Just be sure to stay within your calorie needs.

A healthy eating plan is one that:

  • Emphasizes fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products
  • Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts
  • Is low in saturated fats, trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars
    Mix up your choices within each food group
  • Focus on Fruits. Eat a variety of fruits – fresh, frozen, canned, or dried – rather than fruit juice for most of your fruit choices. For a 2000-calorie diet, you will need 2 cups of fruit each day (for example, 1 small banana, 1 large orange, and ¼ cup of dried apricots or peaches).
  • Vary Your Veggies. Eat more dark green veggies, such as broccoli, kale, and other dark leafy greens; orange veggies, such as carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, and winter squash; and beans and peas, such as pinto beans, kidney beans, black beans, garbanzo beans, split peas, and lentils.
  • Get Your Calcium – Rich Foods. Get 3 cups of low-fat or fat– free milk- or an equivalent amount of low-fat yogurt and/or low–fat cheese (1 ½ ounces of cheese equals 1 cup of milk) – every day. If you don’t or can’t consume milk, choose lactose – free milk products and/or calcium – fortified foods and beverages.
  • Make Half Your Grains Whole. Eat at least 3 ounces of whole– grain cereals, breads, crackers, rice, or pasta every day. One ounce is about 1 slice of bread, 1 cup of breakfast cereal, or 1½ cup of cooked rice or pasta. Look to see that grains such as wheat, rice, oats, or corn are referred to as “whole” in the list of ingredients.
  • Go Lean With Protein. Choose lean meats and poultry. Bake it, broil it, or grill it. And vary your protein choices- with more fish, beans, peas, nuts, and seeds.
  • Know the limits on fats, salt, and sugar. Read the nutrition facts label on foods. Look for foods low in saturated fats and trans fats. Choose and prepare foods and beverages with little salt (sodium) and/or added sugars (caloric sweeteners)Find your balance between food and physical activity. Becoming a healthier you isn’t just about eating healthy—it’s also about physical activity. Regular physical activity is important for your overall health and fitness. It also helps you control body weight by balancing the calories you take in as food with the calories you expend each day.
  • Be physically active for at least 30 minutes most days of the week.
  • Increasing the intensity or the amount of time that you are physically active can have even greater health benefits and may be needed to control body weight. About 60 minutes a day may be needed to prevent weight gain.
  • Children and teenagers should be physically active for 60 minutes every day, or almost every day.
  • Get the most nutrition out of your calories.
    There is a right number of calories for you to eat each day. This number depends on your age, activity level, and whether you’re trying to gain, maintain, or lose weight.* You could use up the entire amount on a few high-calorie items, but chances are you won’t get the full range of vitamins and nutrients your body needs to be healthy. Choose the most nutritionally-rich foods you can from each food group each day—those packed with vitamins, minerals, fiber, and other nutrients, but lower in calories. Pick foods like fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products more often.
    *2,000 calories is the value used as a general reference on the food label. You can calculate your number at www.healthierus.gov/dietaryguidelines.
    NUTRITION…To know the facts…Most packaged foods have a nutrition facts label. For a healthier you, use this tool to make smart food choices quickly and easily. Try these tips:
  • Keep these low: saturated fats,transfats, cholesterol, and sodium.
  • Get enough of these: potassium, fiber, vitamins A and C, calcium, and iron.
  • Use the % Daily Value (DV) column when possible: 5% DV or less is low, 20% DV or more is high.

Check servings and calories. Look at the serving size and how many servings you are actually consuming. If you double the servings you eat, you double the calories and nutrients, including the % DVs.

Make your calories count. Look at the calories on the label and compare them with the nutrients you are getting to help decide whether the food is worth eating. When one serving of a single food item has over 400 calories per serving, it is high in calories.

Don’t sugarcoat it. Since sugars contribute calories with few, if any, nutrients, look for foods and beverages low in added sugars. Read the ingredient list and make sure that added sugars are not one of the first few ingredients. Some names for added sugars (caloric sweeteners) include sucrose, glucose, high fructose corn syrup, corn syrup, maple syrup, and fructose.

Know your fats. Look for foods low in saturated fats,transfats, and cholesterol to help reduce the risk of heart disease (5% DV or less is low, 20% DV or more is high). Most of the fats you eat should be polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats. Keep total fat intake between 20% to 35% of calories.

Reduce sodium (salt), increase potassium. Research shows that eating less than 2,300 milligrams of sodium (about 1 tsp of salt) per day may reduce the risk of high blood pressure. Surprisingly, most of the sodium people eat comes from processed foods, not from the saltshaker. It is also important to look for foods high in potassium, which counteracts some of sodium’s effects on blood pressure.

The American diet has been influenced by many factors. Convenience has become a necessity in families where both parents work. It’s easier to eat out and consume “fast food” or cook at home using “easy-to-use” processed foods. Here at college, you need to take the time to eat properly. Good eating will improve your energy level, your appearance, and your mental attitude – all of which are essential at this time in your life.


Let’s eat for the health of it

The United States government, primarily through the U.S. Department of Agriculture, has provided dietary guidance to the American people for nearly 100 years. The “Dietary Guidelines for Americans” were revised and published in 2010.

Perhaps the greatest task facing government nutritionalists is translating dietary recommendations, which often have been quite general, into food guides or plans that can be used by consumers in selecting types and quantities of foods.

MyPlate represents the nation’s most current level of nutritional education efforts. The new outlook on healthy foods is quite different from years past. In the 1940s, there were eight food groups, with eggs, as well as butter and margarine, given the prestigious position of being food groups by themselves. In the 1920s, even sugar was considered a food group. This changed substantially in the 1950s, when the USDA introduced four food groups – meat, poultry, and fish; grains; dairy products; and fruits and vegetables – to replace the eight food groups.

In 2005 the “basic four,” was replaced by the MyPyramid… Steps to a Healthier You. In June 2011, MyPlate replaced MyPyramid.

MyPlate is part of a larger communication initiative based on 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans to help consumers make better food choices.

MyPlate is designed to remind Americans to eat healthfully; it is not intended to change consumer behavior alone.

MyPlate illustrates the five food groups using a familiar mealtime visual, a place setting.

My Daily Food Plan


7 ounces

Know your limits on fats, sugars, and sodium

Your allowance for oils is 6 teaspoons a day.

Limit Calories from solid fats and added sugars to 270 Calories a day. Reduce sodium intake to less than 2300 mg a day.

Find your balance between food and physical activity

Be physically active for at least 60 minutes each day.

Go lean with protein

Twice a week, make seafood the protein on your plate

Vary your protein routine— choose beans, peas, nuts, and seeds more often

Keep meat and poultry portions small and lean

Get your calcium-rich foods

Drink fat-free or low-fat (1%) milk, for the same amount of calcium and other nutrients as whole milk, but less fat and Calories

Select fat-free or low-fat yogurt and cheese, or try calcium-fortified soy products

Focus on fruits

Eat a variety of fruit

Choose whole or cut-up fruits more often than fruit juice

Vary your veggies

Aim for these amounts

each week:

Dark green veggies = 2 cups

Red & orange veggies = 6 cups

Beans & peas = 2 cups

Starchy veggies = 6 cups

Other veggies = 5 cups

Make half your grains whole Aim for at least 3 1/2 ounces of whole grains a day


DAIRY 3 cups

FRUITS 2 cups


Based on the information you provided, this is your daily recommended amount for each food group.

Your results are based on a 2200 Calorie pattern. Name:

This Calorie level is only an estimate of your needs. Monitor your body weight to see if you need to adjust your Calorie intake.


A Recommended Eating Program

The first step to achieving a healthy diet is to choose to consume a balanced diet. Foods have been categorized in a variety of ways, but the easiest way to understand how to achieve a balanced diet is by using the Dietary Guidelines, illustrated in MyPlate, in conjunction with a recommended eating program.

Table will help identify your estimated calorie requirements. Table identifies amounts of each food group recommended on a daily basis, per your estimated calorie requirements.

Table A

Estimated calorie needs per day by age, gender, and Physical activity level . Estimated amounts of calories needed to maintain calorie balance for various gender and age groups at three different levels of physical activity. The estimates are rounded to the nearest 200 calories. An individual’s calorie needs may be higher or lower than these average estimates.

Physical Activity Levelb
GenderAge (years)SedentaryModerately ActiveActive
Child (female and male)2-31,000-1,200c1,000-1,400c1,000-1,400c
  1. Based on Estimated Energy Requirements (EER) equations, using reference heights (average) and reference weights (healthy) for each age/gender group. For children and adolescents, reference height and weight vary. For adults, the reference man is 5 feet 10 inches tall and weighs 154 pounds. The reference woman is 5 feet 4 inches tall and weighs 126 pounds. EER equations are from the Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Energy, Carbohydrate, Fiber, Fat, Fatty Acids, Cholesterol, Protein, and Amino Acids. Washington (DC): The National Academies Press; 2002.
  2. Sedentary means a lifestyle that includes only the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Moderately active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking about 1.5 to 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life. Active means a lifestyle that includes physical activity equivalent to walking more than 3 miles per day at 3 to 4 miles per hour, in addition to the light physical activity associated with typical day-to-day life.
  3. The calorie ranges shown are to accommodate needs of different ages within the group. For children and adolescents, more calories are needed at older ages. For adults, fewer calories are needed at older ages.
  4. Estimates for females do not include women who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
    Table B.A Recommended Eating Plan at 1,600, 2,000, and 2,600 calorie levels. The number of daily servings in a specific food group varies depending on caloric needs.
    Food Groups1,600Calories2,000Calories2,600CaloriesServing SizesExamplesGrains6 servings7 – 8servings10 – 11servings1 slice bread,1 oz dry cereal, ½ cup cooked rice, pasta, or cerealWhole wheat bread, English muffin, pita bread, bagel, cereals, grits, oatmeal, crackers, unsalted pretzels, and popcornVegetables3 – 4servings4 – 5servings5 – 6servings1cup raw leafy vegetable 1/2cup cooked vegetable6oz vegetable juiceTomatoes, potatoes, carrots, green peas, squash, broccoli, turnip greens, collards, kale, spinach, artichokes, green beans, lima beans, sweet potatoesFruits4 servings4 – 5servings5 – 6servings6 oz fruit juice 1 medium fruit1/4 cup dried fruit 1/2cup fresh, frozen, or canned fruitApricots, bananas, dates, grapes, oranges, orange juice, grapefruit, grapefruit juice, mangoes, melons, peaches, pineapples, prune, raisins, strawberries, tangerinesLow – fat or Fat – free dairy foods2 – 3servings2 – 3servings3 servings8 oz milk1 cup yogurt 11/2 oz cheeseFat-free or low-fat milk, fat- free or low-fat buttermilk, fat-free or low–fat regular or frozen yogurt, low-fat and fat- free cheeseMeat, eggs poultry, fish1 – 2servings2 or less servings2 servings3 oz cooked meat, poultry, or fishSelect only lean; trim away visible fats; broil, roast,or boil instead of frying;remove skin from poultryNuts, seeds, legumes3 – 4servings/ week4 – 5servings/ week1 serving1/3 cup or 1 ½oz nuts, 2 Tbsp or½ oz seeds, ½ cup cooked dry beans or peasAlmonds, filberts, mixed nuts, peanuts, walnuts, sunflower seeds, kidney beans, lentilsFat and oils2 servings2 – 3servings3 servings1 tsp soft margarine 1 Tbsp low – fat mayonnaise,2Tbsp light salad dressing, 1 tspvegetable oilSoft margarine, low-fat mayonnaise, light salad dressing, vegetable oil (such as olive, corn, canola, or safflower)Sweets0 servings5 servings/ week2 servings1 Tbsp sugar1 Tbsp jelly or jam 1/2 oz jelly beans 8 oz lemonadeMaple syrup, sugar, jelly, jam, fruit-flavored gelatin, jelly beans, hard candy, fruit punch, sorbet, ices
    As you look over these tables, please try to visualize your food service program. You’ll find a variety of foods in your cafeteria that complement a healthy lifestyle. You need only to make informed choices as you move thorough the serving areas 2-3 times a day.
    GrainsFeatures of your program that help to satisfy these requirements:
    • Hot and cold cereals at breakfast
    • Casserole items at lunch or dinner containing rice, noodles, or macaroni
    • Lunch or dinner side dishes containing rice, noodles, or pasta
      Fruit and vegetablesFeatures of your program that help to satisfy these requirements:
    • Self-serve salad bar with a variety of raw vegetables and lettuce greens
    • Variety of fresh and canned fruit at all meals
    • Choice of two or more vegetables at lunch and dinner
      Low-fat or fat-free dairy foodsFeatures of your program that help to satisfy these requirements:
    • Low-fat cottage cheese and yogurt on the salad bar (check on availability)
    • 2% milk at all meals
      Interesting Note:The following are equivalent to one cup of milk in calcium content:
    • Yogurt – 1 cup
    • Low-fat cottage cheese – 2 cups
    • Ice cream – 1 1/2 cups
    • Hard cheese – 1 1/2 ouncesOne cup of 2% milk has about 122 calories. One-and-one-third cup of ice cream contains 400 calories. Both have the same nutritional value.
      Meat, eggs, poultry, fishFeatures of your program that help to satisfy these requirements:
    • Eggs at breakfast daily
    • Sandwich bar at lunch

Note: We use only lean ground beef and turkey.


Foods like cakes, cookies, margarine, oil, etc., are placed in this category. Sweets are high in calories, but low in most nutrients. Fats, oils, and sweets as a group should be used sparingly in your daily diet.

Now, that we’ve looked at the recommended amounts of each food group from the dietary guidlines, we must understand that these are minimum recommendations for a balanced diet. Eating more than the recommended quantities may add unwanted calories and fat to your diet.

Moderation is the key. Remember the two reasons we eat:

  1. to provide the energy and nutrients our bodies need to function, and (2) for social and/or family reasons. The latter is often the reason we may consume too many calories. We’re often eating beyond our actual nutritional needs in these settings. We must watch the amount we eat closely to avoid becoming overweight.Remember – We need significantly less food for good health than we have been conditioned to think.
    NutrientsWhat They Do and Where They Can Be Found
    At this point, it would become very boring if we listed all fifty or so nutrients known to man. Instead, we would like to show you the major nutrients and briefly explain what they do for your body. As mentioned before, your body needs a variety of all nutrients, and no one particular food group contains them all.ProteinWhat it does Helps fight disease; forms new tissue; heals injured tissue; provides energy; provides essential amino acids for proper chemical functions and growth within the body.Source Milk, cheese, yogurt, meat, poultry, fish, eggs, dried beans, nuts, seeds.Most of us eat too much protein. In our diet, where the consumption of meat is stressed, we not only eat about twice as much protein as we need, but, along with it, excessive amounts of fat. Beyond our actual need, protein does nothing but add fat and calories, causing us to gain weight. As we saw in the previous section, there are other sources of protein besides meat. An excellent example is dried beans – for example soybeans. It is best to vary your protein sources and eat a healthier dietCarbohydratesWhat they do Carbohydrates are starches and sugars. They provide a major source of energy – “fuel” for the brain and the muscles. They also provide essential non-nutrient dietary fiber that is needed to keep the digestive system working properly.Source Starches – Grain products, pastas, potatoes, and starchy vegetablesSugar – Fruits, milk, yogurt, cakes, cookies, etc. Fiber – Whole grain, fruit, vegetables, nuts, dried beans, vegetables with edible seeds and skins.One of the most common misconceptions is that starchy foods are high in calories and low in nutritional value. This attitude is one reason for the deficiencies in our American diet. We have avoided complex carbohydrates, one of the best sources of dietary fiber and a major source of energy, and, in turn, the incidence of heart disease and cancer has increased.
    Carbohydrates, such as bread, potatoes, and rice are not fattening, if eaten in appropriate amounts. They contain the same calories as protein and half as much as fat.One thing to note here is that refined sugar is the one form of carbohydrates that has no nutritional value. It contains nothing beneficial to your body except calories, which will turn into fat if not burned up.Starches, grains, fruits, and vegetables are actually more nutri- tious and less fattening than a steak dinner or a tuna salad – they fill you up and give you fiber for a healthy digestive system, too!FatsWhat they do Provide energy; aid in the body’s absorption and retention of vitamins; provide fatty acids needed for normal body functions. Also provide satiety (the feeling of being full)Source Meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, eggs, baked goods, snack foods, fried foods, nuts, peanut butter, margarines, butter, oils.The dietary guidelines recommend that only 20 to 35% of our daily caloric intake include fat from sources like fish, nuts, and vegetable oils. Eating too much fat could be the reason many of us could stand to lose a little weight. Excessive fat consumption not only causes us to gain weight, but it is also related to eventual heart disease.Saturated Fats: Found in animal products, these raise your cholesterol level. Should be less than 10% of daily fat consumptionPolyunsaturated Fats: Found in vegetable products and oil.Trans Fats: 80% of trans fats come from processed foods and oils. The other 20% is found in natural food sources. Trans fats have the same effect on the heart as saturated fats. The foodservice industry as a whole is working to reduce and/or eliminate trans fats.Cholesterol: We naturally produce cholesterol in our liver to create hormones and construct cells. It’s the cholesterol added to our bodies through our diet that can lead to clogged arteries and heart problems in later years. This particular cholesterol is found only in animal products; it is never in fruits, vegetables, or grains.
    We’ve all heard of the cholesterol problem. The best solution is to limit our intake of “saturated” or animal fats found in such foods as dairy products, eggs, and fatty meats.VitaminsVitamins are organic substances necessary for life. Your body does produce some of them naturally, but not in adequate amounts. Therefore, we must get vitamins from our food. A surprising fact is that our body only requires vitamins in tiny amounts. All the vitamins our bodies need for an entire day add up to about an eighth of a teaspoon.If you eat a balanced diet, you will provide yourself with more than enough of the vitamins you need to live a healthy lifestyle. The only reason to take vitamins or mineral supplements is to meet a need as determined by your doctor or dietitian. One misconception strongly accepted as “truth” is that Vitamin C cures the common cold. There is no scientific evidence that vitamin C, even in large doses does anything to aid in the cure of the common cold.
    VitaminsThe following is a list of the thirteen vitamins. Also listed are their major functions and common sources.VITAMINFUNCTIONSOURCEVitamin A (Caratenoids)Maintains healthy skin and hair; night vision; proper bone and tooth development.Bright orange vegetables like carrots, sweet potatoes, and pumpkin. Tomatoes and tomato products, red sweet pepper. Leafy greens such as spinach, collards,turnip greens, kale, beet and mustard greens, green leaf lettuce, and romaine. Orange fruits like mango, cantaloupe,apricots, and grapefruitVitamin DMaintenance of bones and teeth; helps absorb calcium and phosphorous.Milk, eggs, liver, tuna.Vitamin EProtects Vitamin A; prevents cell membrane damage.Vegetable oils, margarine, grains, cereals, green leafy vegetables.Vitamin KAids in blood clotting; maintenance of bones.Green leafy vegetables, cauliflower, cabbage.Vitamin CAids in giving structure to bones, cartilage, and muscle; helps maintain blood vessels, bones, and teeth.Citrus fruits and juices, kiwi fruit, strawberries, guava, papaya, and cantaloupe Broccoli, peppers, tomatoes, cabbage, brussel sprouts, and potatoes. Leafy greens such as romaine, turnip greens, and spinachVitamin B’ (Thiamine)Promotes normal functions of nervous system.Whole grain products, bread, cereals, dried beans, fresh pork.Vitamin B’ (Riboflavin)Helps transfer carbohydrates, protein, and fat into energy.Milk, yogurt, cheese, vegetables, meat, poultry, eggs, grain, bread.NiacinSame as above.Meat, poultry, fish, grains, breads, dried beans, and nuts.Vitamin B’Aids in the use of fats and formation of protein.Meat, poultry, fish, grains, breads, cereals.Folic AcidRed blood cell formation; formation of proteinGrains, breads, fruit, green leafy vegetables.Pantothenic AcidHelps in the body’s use of carbohydrates, protein, and fats.Most foods.BiotinFormation of fatty acids; helps release energy from carbohydrates.Most foods.Vitamin B12Red blood cell formation, genetic material; helps in the functioning of the nervous system.Milk, yogurt, cheese, meat, poultry, eggs.
    MineralsMinerals are inorganic substances your body needs to assist in the many chemical processes that go on internally. Your body does not produce minerals; therefore, you must acquire them through a balanced diet.Again, if you consume a proper diet, there is no need to buy min- erals in bottles at the vitamin store. As a matter of fact, if you take larger doses of minerals or vitamins, there are many possible risks of bodily malfunction. Our advice is repeated: only take vitamins or minerals on the advice of your doctor because of a deficiency.Below is a list of the minerals most commonly discussed. Also listed are their major purposes and sources.

    MINERALFUNCTIONSOURCECalciumBuilds and tones; teeth andbone strength, muscle contraction, blood clotting.Milk, yogurt, cheese, dark green leafy vegetables, dried beans.MagnesiumRegulates body temperature; buildsbones, helps produce protein.Whole grains, leafy greenvegetables, dried beans, nuts.PotassiumTransmission of nerve impulses, muscle contractions, water balancebetween cells and body fluid.Fruits, vegetables, dried beans.SodiumRegulates body fluid; aids in thetransmission of nerve impulses.Salt, meat, fish, cheese, eggs,poultry.PhosphorousBuilds bones and teeth; releases energy from carbohydrates, fats,and proteins.Milk products, meat, poultry, fish, eggs.ChlorineStomach digestion.Salt.IronFormation of hemoglobin in blood; muscle development; suppliesoxygen to cells.Red meat, liver, poultry, fish, green vegetables, grain products.ZincFormation of protein; tissue growth;wound healing; prevents anemia.Meat, poultry, cheese, grainproducts, dried beans, nuts, seeds.IodineHormones, reproduction.Iodized salt, seafood.FluorineMaintenance of teeth and bones.Fluoridated water.
    WaterWater is essential for good health. Believe it or not, our bodies consist of approximately 65% water! It is needed for digestion and absorption of food, as well as for the elimination of waste. It also helps to regulate body temperature and aids in circulation and lubrication of joints. Your body’s need for water is second only to that of oxygen.You need six to eight (8 oz) glasses of water (48-64 oz) daily. Possible sources are: plain water, milk, soft drinks, juice, coffee, tea, fruits, and vegetables. It is considered important to be sure that 50% of your water intake consists of plain water. Most Americans do not drink enough plain water.
    D D D DConsume a variety of nutrient–dense foods and beverages within and among the basic food groups while choosing foods that limit intake of saturated and trans fat, cholesterol, added sugars, and salt.
    Portion ControlMany people are concerned with controlling their weight. Losing weight or maintaining weight calls for more than just choosing a healthy variety of foods. It also calls for looking at how much and how often you eat. This section will help show you how to use serving sizes to help you eat appropriately.What is the difference between a portion and a serving?A “portion” is how much food you choose to eat at one time, whether in a restaurant, from a package, or in your own kitchen. A “serving” size is the amount of food listed on a product’s nutrition facts. Sometimes, the portion size and serving size match; sometimes they do not. Keep in mind that the serving size on the nutrition facts information is not necessarily a recommended amount of food to eat. It is a quick way of letting you know the calories and nutrients in a certain amount of food.The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) Nutrition Facts information is printed on most packaged foods. It communicates the amount of calories, fat, carbohydrate, sodium, and other nutrients available in one serving of food. Most packaged foods contain more than a single serving. The serving size that appears on a food label is based on the FDA-established lists of foods.How do I know how big my portions are?The portion size you are used to eating may be equal to two or three standard servings. For example, the serving size of macaroni and cheese is 1 cup, but the standard package actually contains 2 cups. If you eat the entire package, you are eating two servings of macaroni and cheese, with double the calories, fat, and other nutrients in a standard serving.To see how many servings a particular package has, you must check the “servings per container” listed on its nutrition facts. You may be surprised to find that small containers often contain more than one serving.Learning to recognize standard serving sizes can help you judge how much you are eating. When cooking for yourself, use measuring cups and spoons to measure your usual food portions and compare them to standard serving sizes from nutrition facts on packaged food products for a week or so. Put the suggested serving size that appears on the label on your plate before you start eating. This will help you see what one standard serving of a food looks like compared to the amount you normally eat.
    It may also help to compare serving sizes to everyday objects. For example, 1/4 cup of raisins is about the size of a large egg. Three ounces of meat or poultry is about the size of a deck of cards. See other serving size comparisons below. (Keep in mind that these size comparisons are approximations.)
    imageServing Sizes Everyday Objects
    1 cup of cereal = a fist
    1/2 cup of cooked rice, pasta, or potato= 1/2 baseball
    1 baked potato = a fist
    1 medium fruit = a baseball
    1/2 cup of fresh fruit = 1/2 baseball
    1. 1/2 ounces of low-fat or fat-free cheese = 4 dice
      1/2 cup of ice cream = 1/2 baseball
    2. tablespoons of peanut butter = a ping pong ball

    The amount of calories you eat affects your weight and health. In addition to selecting a healthy variety of foods, look at the size of the portions you eat. Choosing nutritious foods and keeping portion sizes sensible may help you reach, and stay at, a healthy weight.
    Vegetarian diets are rapidly gaining in popularity. They can reduce the risk of many common diseases and promote weight loss. However, myths and misinformation still abound. If you’re thinking about making the switch to this lifestyle, it’s important to have accurate information. Let’s take a look at some of the most common questions about vegetarianism.
    What are the different types of vegetarians?There are several variations of the vegetarian diet. Strict vegetarians, called vegans, eat no animal products whatsoever. The staples of their diets are fruits, vegetables, legumes (beans and peas), grains, seeds, and nuts. Lacto-vegetarians eat dairy products in addition to plant foods. Lacto-ovo vegetarians include dairy products and eggs as well as plant foods in their diets.
    What are the health benefits of a vegetarian diet?Vegetarian diets are lower in saturated fats, cholesterol, and animal protein. They’re also high in folate, anti-oxidant vitamins like C and E, carotenoids, and phytochemicals. Overall, vegetarians have substantially reduced risks for obesity, heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes mellitus, osteoporosis, and some forms of cancer – particularly lung cancer and colon cancer. Vegetarian diets that are low in saturated fats have been successfully used to reverse severe coronary artery disease.
    Is it possible to get enough protein on a vegetarian diet? Absolutely. It’s actually difficult to become protein deficient unless you quit eating all together. Just about all unrefined foods contain significant amounts of protein. Potatoes are 11% protein; oranges 8%; beans 26%; and tofu 34%.
    Why do people become vegetarians?There are a variety of reasons. Many people switch to a vegetarian diet for weight loss and improved health. Some are concerned about the safety of meat following recent outbreaks of salmonella and E. coli bacteria. Others feel that it is a moral or spiritual issue. Some just don’t like meat. For many vegetarians, it is a combination of reasons.
    Are vegetarian diets always healthy?Not always. If a vegetarian replaces the meat with high-fat cheeses and oil, they’re not helping matters much. It’s also important to remember that there’s no meat in ice cream, potato chips, and fudge brownies. It’s certainly possible to be a vegetarian and still consume large quantities of high-fat, empty calories. Vegetarian or not, a healthy diet is low in cholesterol and saturated fat and centers around fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and lean protein.
    How do you make the transition to a vegetarian diet?That depends on the individual. Some people just decide to do it and never look back. Others make gradual changes to their diets. They may start by having one or two meatless meals a day, just to try it out. Some people set aside one or two days a week to go meatless, or set aside only one day a week to eat meat. Some people start by eliminating red meat and work from there. Others just cut back on the amount of meat in their diet, using it as a condiment instead of the main course.
    Do vegetarians need special vitamins and supplements?In most cases they don’t. A well-rounded vegetarian diet that includes a variety of foods usually meets all nutritional requirements. One possible exception would be vitamin B-12, which is found only in animal products. Vegetarians who limit dairy products may also want to pay special attention to getting enough calcium.
    Eating Disorders:Types and Warning Signs
    Paying attention to diet and exercise can effectively control weight. But, if you find yourself constantly worrying about your weight and thinking about what you are or aren’t going to eat, you may have an unhealthy relationship with food. Sometimes eating disorders develop from obsessive attitudes about food and body image.
    What is an eating disorder?An eating disorder is a psychological condition that manifests itself in unhealthy eating habits. These habits fall on a continuum, from eating a healthy, balanced diet on one end, to serious eating disorders on the other end. Eating disorders have serious emotional and physical effects. However, with proper treatment, control and recovery is possible.
    Eating disorders involve disturbances in eating, such as:
    • not eating enough,
    • repeatedly eating too much in a short period of time, or
    • taking drastic measures to rid the body of calories consumed (purging through vomiting; overuse of diuretics or laxatives; excessive exercise; or fasting)You might think that your efforts to control your eating are a healthy way to achieve the body you want, but if your eating habits consume your thoughts and dictate your social activities, things have gotten out of control. What may have started as a plan to lose a few pounds, might have turned into an unhealthy eating disorder.
      What are the types of eating disorders?The types of eating disorders are:
      Anorexia nervosaAnorexia is characterized by:
    • Refusal to maintain a normal weight for one’s height, body type, age, and activity level
    • Intense fear of gaining weight or becoming ”fat”; extreme concern with body weight and shape
    • Body image misperception; for example, feeling ”fat” despite being underweight
      Bulimia nervosaBulimia is characterized by:
    • Preoccupation with food and weight
    • Binges (the consumption of a very large amount of food in a short period of time)
    • Secretiveness and shamefulness about the bingeing and purging
      Binge eating disorderBinge eating disorder is characterized by:
    • Periods of uncontrolled, impulsive, or continuous eating to the point of being uncomfortably full (binges)
    • Feelings of shame and self-hatred about the bingeing
    • No compensatory behavior (such as purging) after bingeingWhile obesity is not considered a type of eating disorder in itself, obesity can result from binge eating disorder.
      Eating Disorders Not Otherwise Specified (EDNOS)A range of other disordered eating patterns don’t fit into the other types of eating disorders. These eating patterns are still serious, and intervention and attention are necessary. EDNOS, or other types of eating disorders, include:
    • Eating problems with some, but not all, of the characteristics of a full-fledged eating disorder; for example, people who severely restrict food intake, but who do not meet the full criteria for anorexia nervosa
    • Chewing food and spitting it out (without swallowing)
    • Bingeing and purging irregularly, such as at times of increased stressAlthough anorexia is highly publicized, bulimia is the most common type of eating disorder. Furthermore, binge eating disorder is about as common as anorexia. Minor eating “problems” can later develop into serious eating disorders.What are the warning signs and symptoms of eating disorders?Eating disorders can go undetected for several reasons:
    • It can be difficult to distinguish a warning sign or symptom from a consequence.
    • Eating disorders are secretive by nature.
    • Some warning signs (such as moodiness) can be consistent with normal adolescent development, making it difficult to distinguish an eating problem from normal behavior.
      Early detection can be improved by being aware of clusters of symptoms from behavioral, physical, social, and emotional or psychological categories.People develop and experience eating disorders differently. Therefore, some people exhibit many warning signs or symptoms, while others may exhibit only a few.What can I do to help a family member or friend who may have an eating disorder?You may suspect that your friend or family member has an eating disorder because of signs and symptoms that you have noticed.Confronting a friend or family member who has an eating disorder is a delicate matter—most people with anorexia or bulimia deny the condition. Remember:
    • If you encourage the person with an eating disorder to get help, you may help save the person’s life.
    • Support from friends and family can really help people recover, even when they are receiving professional help and advice.
    • Whenever you intervene in someone’s life, they may not appreciate it – especially at first. If you have good reason to believe their life is in danger, proceed with this awareness and with sensitivity for their feelings.
    • Suggest referral to a professional or campus counselor/ nurseRecovering from an eating disorder is challenging, but very achievable and essential for your well-being. Seeking help and support from others will help you sort through the underlying issues causing your eating disorder, and help you to learn new, healthier ways of coping. Support is available for you if you have an eating disorder, or if you are a family member, friend, or partner of someone with an eating disorder. You don’t have to go through this alone! Tell Someone!
      Weight Loss, Fitness, and CaloriesMany Americans have been persuaded by the big business of quick weight-loss diets. If you’re overweight, or simply think you are overweight, you’ve certainly been exposed to more ‘diets’ than you can count.We don’t intend to tell you specifically how to reduce your weight in this section. Maintaining or controlling your weight is, again, a matter of choice. We’ve already determined that your body doesn’t need a large quantity of food to be healthy. If you eat with moderation and eat a balanced, normal diet, then chances are good that you won’t gain weight. The only weight loss diet we recommend is one that is nutritionally sound and recommended by a doctor or dietitian.According to the Dietary Guidelines for Americans, the prevalence of obesity in the United States has doubled in the past two decades. Nearly one third of adults are obese, that is, they have a body mass index (BMI) of 30 or greater. A high prevalence of obesity is of great public health concern because excess body fat leads to a higher risk for premature death, type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease, stroke, gallbladder disease, respiratory dysfunction, gout, osteoarthritis, and certain kinds of cancers.Ideally, the goal for adults is to achieve and maintain a body weight that optimizes their health. However, for obese adults, even modest weight loss (e.g., 10 pounds) has health benefits, and the prevention of further weight gain is beneficial.Those following typical American eating and activity patterns are likely to be consuming diets in excess of their energy requirements. However, caloric intake is only one side of the energy balance equation. Caloric expenditure needs to be in balance with caloric intake to maintain body weight and must exceed caloric intake to achieve weight loss. To reverse the trend toward obesity, most Americans need to eat fewer calories, be more active, and make wiser food choices.Increasing physical activity, while consuming fewer calories, is the key to controlling body weight.
      Physical Activity and Weight ControlFor people seeking to lose weight or to maintain weight loss, more-than-the-minimum amounts of recommended physical activity may be necessary. For individuals who want to lose weight gradually, adding more physical activity, combined with a healthy diet, helps facilitate weight loss goals and helps keep the weight off once it has been lost.Each pound of fat your body stores represents approximately 3,500 calories of unused energy. In order to lose one pound, you would have to create a deficit of 3,500 calories by either eating 3,500 fewer calories or by using 3,500 calories through physical activity.Here’s a quick example of the calories in/calories out concept using walking. Fifteen minutes of walking at a moderate pace (a distance of about 1 mile) uses about 100 calories (give or take a little depending on current weight and stride length). If you walked for 15 minutes every day for a week, you would use an extra 700 calories. Assuming that you keep your calorie intake at a steady level, it would take you about five weeks to lose one pound of fat. Over the course of a year, that adds up to 10 pounds. While that seems like a long time to lose 10 pounds, think about the little effort it took to get there – you maintained your existing diet and added just 15 minutes of moderate walking every day.
      Points on Physical Activity and Weight Management
    • Engage in regular physical activity and reduce sedentary activities to promote health, psychological well–being, and a healthy body weight.
    • Achieve physical fitness by including cardiovascular conditioning, stretching, and resistance exercises
    • Be physically active at least 30 minutes each day to help reduce the risk of chronic disease
    • Be physically active at least 60 minutes each day to help prevent gradual weight gain that occurs over time
    • Be physically active at least 60 to 90 minutes, at a moderate to vigorous level, each day to help promote and sustain weight loss
    • To maintain body weight in a healthy range, balance calories from food and beverage with calories expended
    • To prevent gradual weight gain over time, make small decreases in food and beverage calories and increase physical activity

Below are some examples of physical activities commonly engaged in, and the average amount of calories a 154-pound individual will expend by engaging in each activity for 1 hour. The expenditure value encompasses both resting metabolic rate calories and activity expenditure. Some of the activities can constitute either moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity depending on the rate at which they are carried out (for walking and bicycling).

Sedentary Light

Watching TV Slow walking

Reading Cooking food

Eating Washing dishes Typing on computer Putting away groceries Talking on the phone Child care

Standing in line Croquet Riding in a car Mild stretching

General office work Billards

Approximate Calories/Hr

Moderate Physical Activity for a 154-lb Person

Hiking 370

Light gardening/yard work 330

Dancing 330

Golf (walking and carrying clubs) 330

Bicycling (<10 mph) 290

Walking (3.5 mph) 280

Weight lifting (general light workout) 220

Stretching 180

Approximate Calories/Hr

Vigorous Physical Activity for a 154-lb Person

Running/jogging (5 mph) 590

Bicycling (>10 mph) 590

Swimming (slow freestyle laps) 510

Aerobics 480

Walking (4.5 mph) 460

Heavy yard work (chopping wood) 440

Weight lifting (vigorous effort) 440

Basketball (vigorous) 440

Calories burned per hour will be higher for persons who weigh more than 154 lbs (70 kg) and lower for persons who weigh less. Source: Adapted from the 2005 DGAC Report.

Body Mass Index (BMI)

Monitoring body fat regularly can be a useful strategy for assessing the need to adjust caloric intake and energy expenditure. Two surrogate measures used to approximate body fat are Body Mass Index (BMI) and waist circumference. BMI is used for adults and children, and waist circumference is used only for adults. BMI is defined as weight in kilograms divided by height, in meters, squared. For adults, weight status is based on the absolute BMI level. For children and adolescents, weight status is determined by the comparison of the individual’s BMI with age and gender- specific percentile values. BMI is more accurate at approximating body fat than is measuring body weight alone. However, BMI does have some limitations. BMI overestimates body fat in people who are very muscular and underestimates body fat in people who have lost muscle mass. The relationship between BMI and body fat varies somewhat with age, gender, and ethnicity. For adults, BMI proves to be a better predictor of a population’s chronic disease risk than an individual’s risk of chronic disease.

A Word of Hope and Encouragement

It is our hope that you feel it has been beneficial to become more informed on the subject of nutrition. We hope that the program we’ve developed for you is at least a starting point on the road to a healthy and successful life through good eating.

CHOICE is the buzz word. During your college years, a well- rounded diet will influence your energy levels, appearance, attitudes, and health. If you care enough about yourself to learn good eating habits, and make wise selections in your cafeteria, you will also gain self-confidence in your ability to make other life decisions or choices wisely. In fact, you will be preparing yourself for a lifetime of good eating and good living.


“Know ye not that ye are the temple of God, and that the Spirit of God dwelleth in you? If any man defile the temple of God, him shall God destroy; for the Temple of God is holy, which temple ye are. “

(I Cor. 3:16, 17)